Officer’s Like Qualities And The Selection System, Tips by Capt. S. K. Singh (Ex. Army)
It is reasonable to assume that most of society regards the military officer as a leader. Most officers lead a complex, technical life, with many highly specialized duties to perform. These duties are his responsibilities as an individual, and as a highly trained, responsible member of an exacting profession. In addition, he has to lead his men. An officer does not exist for his individual, personal value, but for his ability to show the way and make his men want to follow. people are not all born with the same characteristics, but this is not to say that the characteristics of effective leadership cannot be acquired. just as a good physique can be cultivated with suitable effort, the skills of leadership are not normally acquired instantly.
The training of a leader, whether it be formal or through experiences, takes many years. Appropriate experiences are necessary, both to build and develop the leader’s own force of character, and also to increase his ability to influence others. In the simplest of terms, leadership can be defined as “art of getting things done” or, perhaps, the combination of example, persuasion and compulsion that makes the military subordinate do what is wanted of him. Clearly, in a military environment, things have to be done, but leadership is not just getting things done, but getting them done in the way in which the leader wants them done, in all conditions, and with the consent of the team. Over the years, every military organization concerned with leadership training and development has developed its own list of ‘Leadership Qualities’.
Factor – I (Planning and Organising)
(a) Effective Intelligence
(b) Reasoning Ability
(c) Organising Ability
(d) Power of Expression
Factor – II (Social Adjustment)
(e) Social Adaptability
(g) Sense of Responsibility
Factor – III (Social Effectiveness)
(i) Self Confidence
(j) Speed of Decision
(k) Ability to Influence the Group
Factor – IV (Dynamic)
FACTOR I : PLANNING AND ORGANISING
- Effective Intelligence. Is the intelligence utilized in coping with practical situations of varying complexity. It is different from basic intelligence which is the capacity to perceive relations or to do abstract thinking. Basic intelligence is assessed by the use of intelligence tests may be verbal or non verbal effective intelligence includes the following:
(a) Practical intelligence. The capacity to evolve independent solutions of practical problems and situations.
(b) Resourcefulness. The capacity to use the available means for the desired end with the help of improvisation of resources and finding a solution when in a tight corner.
* Generally students with higher effective intelligence are bright, mentally sharp, penetrating, innovative and inventive.
- Reasoning ability. The ability to grasp the essentials well and to arrive at conclusions by rational & logical thinking. It includes receptivity, inquiring attitude, logical reasoning and seeing essentials of a problem.
(a) Receptivity. The ability to understand and absorb new impressions. It involves interest, attention and grasping power.
(b) Inquiring attitude. Healthy curiosity resulting in an urge to increase one’s general knowledge and experience in life.
(c) Logical reasoning. The ability to arrive at conclusion or judgment based strictly on a presses of rational thinking and excluding emotional factors.
(d) Seeing essentials of a problem. The ability by which the individual is not only clear in his knowledge of the situation at hand, but also is able to analyses various factors, shift them in order of importance and make best use of them towards achieving a solution.
* Students with higher reasoning ability are exceptionally sharp, analytical, highly imaginative, logical & practical.
- Organising ability. The ability to arrange the resources in a systematic way so as to produce effective results. It can also be defined as the ability to put to the best use of the available means for attainment of a desired objective.
* Students with higher organising ability are very meticulous in planning est dealing with complex issues without over looking details, use commonsense, original in actions and quick in comprehension.
- Power of expression. This is the most important tools of personality where his/her ability to put across ideas adequately with ease and clarity are assessed.
* Students with this quality are more eloquent, forceful, lucid, precise & effective in their expression.
- Social adaptability. The ability of an individual to adapt himself to the social environment and adjust well with persons and social groups, with special reference to superiors, equal and subordinates. Social adaptability includes social intelligence, attitude towards others, tact, and adaptability.
(a) Social Intelligence. It is the intelligence ability applied in social field. It is the ability to understand people & adjust well in new surroundings.
(b) Attitude towards others. The ability to put oneself into the other man’s position so as to appreciate justifiable difficulties, to enable rendering help in a proper way.
(c) Tact. Skillful management of the feelings of the persons dealt with.
(d) Adaptability. The ability to adjust to the environment with special reference to the social situations in that environment. When considering service aspect it involves not only a resilient nature shown by and accommodative tendency but also keenness and interest in service life.
* Persons with higher adaptability are genial, very spontaneous in adjusting well in short time, outgoing, amiable, accommodative, flexible understanding, friendly & sympathetic.
- Cooperation. The attitude of an individual to participate willingly in harmony with others in a group, in achieving the group goal. This implies a belief in the collective effort being more productive than the individual effort. Cooperation includes the element of joint effort and team spirit.Team spirit indicates loyalty to the aims and objects of the group to the extent of subordinating individual aim to the group aim.
* Such persons are altruistic, selfless, volunteers workers with tremendous esprit – de corps. They are also humane, warm hearted, spontaneous and group minded people.
- Sense of Responsibility: It enable a person to be dependable and to willingly discharge his obligation. It includes sense of duty but is much more comprehensive in meaning and scope. It implies:
(a) Sense of duty Faithfully and firmly doing what one is ordered to do.
(b) Discipline. A trained sense of acting strictly in accordance with rules, regulations and conventions. This factor promotes development of self control and keeps one within bounds of social and normal standards.
Sense of responsibility therefore means:-
(a) A thorough understanding of the values of duty, social standard, and of what is required of an individual and then to give it his energy and attention of his own accord.
(b) Doing one’s best, carrying out even unspecified and probably unforeseen duties and obligations rather than faithfully carrying out what one is told to do. It demonstrates moral willingness to bear the consequences.
* Persons with higher sense of responsibility are exceptionally dutiful, faithful and respectful to authority. They are very conscientious and go out of the way to soldier responsibilities.
FACTOR SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS
- Initiative. The ability to originate purposeful action. It has the following aspects:-
(a) Ability to take the first steps in an unfamiliar situation.
(b) In the right direction.
(c) Sustain it, till the goal is achieved.
* Persons with higher initiative display plenty of originality in thoughts & actions. Persons with positive initiative never get stuck, they are pushing, enterprising , persistent and will come out with numerous fresh idea.
- Self confidence. It is the faith in one’s ability to meet stressful situations particularly those that are unfamiliar.
* People with higher self – confidence are totally composed, rationally active, have abundant faith in their abilities, self reliant and constructive in difficulties.
- Speed of decision. The ability to arrive at workable decisions expeditiously. It comprises:-
(a) Then appropriateness and cost effectiveness.
(b) Feasibility & practicability.
(c) The quickness in arriving at the decision.
* Persons with this ability are Infallible, prompt, judicious and take sound decisions with considerable sense of urgency. They are never wavering, impulsive, hesitant, erratic in their decisions.
- Ability to influence the group. The ability which enables an individual to bring about willing effort from the group for achieving the objective desired by him. This influence is the prime cause of cooperative and willing effort of a group towards the achievement of a set objective.
* Persons with this quality are highly inspiring with magnetic charm, in dispensable, impressionable, assertive, persuasive, firm & have considerable capacity to over come opposition.
- Liveliness. The capacity of an individual to keep himself buoyant when meeting problems and bring about a cheerful atmosphere.
- Determination. A sustained effort to achieve objectives in sprite of obstacles and set backs. It implies fixedness of purpose: mental concentration and strength of will. It includes:-
(a) Application to work. The capacity of physical application to work.
(b) Drive. The inner motive power at the disposal of an individual. It is the capacity to force oneself along when under pressure and urgency, towards the achievement of the object. It may inspire energetic action in others towards the achievement of a common goal.
* They are highly resolute, un– wavering, advent, industrious, firm and steady, persevering and persistent .
- Courage: The ability to appreciate and take purposive risks willingly. It includes:-
(a) Ability to meet appreciated dangers.
(b) Spirit of adventure, and enterprising spirit and a willingness to dare or risk a hazard.
(c) Capacity to keep oneself composed in adverse situations enabling to be steady in facing and handling such situations.
* They are doubtless risk takers, daring, aggressive, creative, bold & plucky with tremendous physical & moral courage.
- Stamina. The capacity to withstand protracted physical and mental strain. It emphasizes endurance.
* such persons posses Herculean physical & mental capabilities & can withstand plenty of physical & mental stress. They are indefatigable, calm & are very tough individuals.
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